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  • FAQ:中級編
  • FAQ一覧へ

フェールセーフとはどんな考え方ですか?

中級編 回答

絶対に人命を危険に晒させないようにシステムを構築する設計手法です。

平井悠斗 統括技術部 (2006年入社)

フェールセーフとは、装置はいつか必ず壊れることを前提とし、故障時や異常発生時でも、安全側に動作させることで絶対に人命を危険に晒させないようにシステムを構築する設計手法です。

簡単な例だと、
踏切遮断機が故障した場合
⇒重力により自らしゃ断かんが降りてくる(自重降下)機構により踏切通行者の安全を確保します。
列車検知装置が故障した場合
⇒列車がいてもいなくても「在線(列車あり)」と判断し、「赤(停止)」を現示させることで衝突を防止します。
このように鉄道信号保安装置は常に安全で信頼できるシステムであるために、様々な手法を用いて構築されています。では軌道回路装置が故障した場合の動作を詳しく見てみましょう。
軌道回路装置では、正常時にはリレーが動作し、「緑(進行)」を現示しています(図1)
ここでケーブルの断線や装置の故障などが発生した場合、リレーを動作させる電流が流れなくなり、列車在線時(図2)と同じ回路が構成されます(図3)
q1_1.jpg

フェールセーフは、鉄道の保安にかかわるすべての機器に共通する最も基本的な思想であり、当社が提供する鉄道信号機器の安全と信頼はこの考え方のうえに成り立っています。

FAQ : 中級編

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